(peer reviewed)

Salvi, AM, DD Smith, MA Adams, KA McCulloh, TJ Givnish. 2021. Mesophyll photosynthetic sensitivity to leaf water potential in Eucalyptus: a new dimension of plant adaptation to native moisture supply. New Phytologist. In press.

Richards, JH, JJ Henn, QM Sorenson, M Adams, DD Smith, KA McCulloh, and TJ Givnish. 2021. Mistletoes and their eucalypt hosts differ in the response of leaf functional traits to climatic moisture supply. Oecologia. In press 10.1007/s00442-021-04867-1

Olson M, T Anfodillo, S Gleason, and KA McCulloh. 2021. Tansley Review: Tip-to-base xylem conduit widening as an adaptation: causes, consequences, and empirical priorities. New Phytologist. 229: 1877–1893. 10.1111/nph.16961

O’Keefe, K and KA McCulloh. 2021. Do invasive jumping worms impact sugar maple (Acer saccharum) functioning during a novel invasion of a temperate forest? Biological Invasions. 23: 129-141. doi:10.1007/s10530-020-02360-z

Gagne, M, DD Smith, and KA McCulloh. 2020. Limited physiological acclimation to short-term heatwave stress in two boreal tree species. Tree Physiology. 40: 1680-1696. doi:10.1093/treephys/tpaa102

O’Keefe, K, DM Bell, KA McCulloh, and JB Nippert. 2020. Bridging the flux gap: sap flow measurements reveal species-specific patterns of water-use in a tallgrass prairie. JGR Biogeosciences. 125: e2019JG005446. Doi: 10.1029/2019JG005446

Hart, J, K O’Keefe, SP Augustine, and KA McCulloh. 2020. Physiological responses of germinant Pinus palustris and P. taeda seedlings to water stress and the significance of the grass-stage. Forest Ecology and Management. 458: 117647. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2019.117647

Kattge, J., et al. (I am one of hundreds of alphabetically listed authors). 2020. TRY plant database—enhanced coverage and open access. Global Change Biology. 26:119-188. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14904

McCulloh, KA, J-C Domec, DM Johnson, DD Smith, FC Meinzer. 2019. A dynamic yet vulnerable pipeline: Integration and coordination of hydraulic traits across whole plants. Plant, Cell & Environment. 42: 2789-2807. doi: 10.1111/pce.13607

O’Keefe, K, J Nippert, and KA McCulloh. 2019. Plant water uptake along a diversity gradient: Evidence for complementarity in hydrological niches? Oikos. 128:1748-1760. doi: 10.1111/oik.06529

Fu, X, FC Meinzer, DR Woodruff, Y Liu, DD #Smith, KA McCulloh, and A Howard. 2019. Coordination and trade-offs between leaf and stem hydraulic traits and stomatal regulation along a spectrum of isohydry to anisohydry. Plant, Cell & Environment. 42: 2245-2258. DOI: 10.1111/pce.13543

Krieg, CP, JE Watkins, and KA McCulloh. 2019. A new protocol for psychometric pressure-volume curves of fern gametophytes. Applications in Plant Sciences. 7:e01248. doi:10.1002/aps3.1248

Li, F, KA McCulloh, S Sun, and W Bao. 2018. Linking leaf hydraulic properties, maximum photosynthetic rates, and leaf lifespan in xerophytic species: global hypotheses reconsidered. American Journal of Botany. 101: 1858-1868. doi:10.1002/ajb2.1185

Gleason, S, C Blackman, S Gleason, KA McCulloh, T Ocheltree, and M Westoby. 2018. Vessel scaling in evergreen angiosperm leaves conforms with Murray’s law and area-filling assumptions: implications for plant size, leaf size, and cold tolerance. New Phytologist. 218: 1360-1370. doi: 10.1111/nph.15116

Johnson, D, J-C Domec, ZC Berry, A Schwantes, DR Woodruff, KA McCulloh, R Wortemann, J Swenson, S Mackay, N McDowell, and R Jackson. 2018. Co-occurring woody species have diverse hydraulic strategies and mortality rates during an extreme drought. Plant, Cell & Environment. 41: 576-588. DOI: 10.1111/pce.13121

Roddy, AR, KA Simonin, KA McCulloh, CR Brodersen, TE Dawson. 2018 Water relations of Calycanthus flowers: hydraulic conductance, capacitance, and embolism resistance. Plant, Cell and Environment. DOI: 10.1111/pce.13205

Johnson, D, Berry, ZC, Baker, K, Smith, D, McCulloh, KA, Domec, J-C. Leaf hydraulic parameters are more plastic in species that experience a wider range of leaf water potentials. 2018. Functional Ecology. 32:894-903

Meinzer FC, DD Smith, DR Woodruff, DE Marias, KA McCulloh, AR Howard, AL Magedman. 2017. Stomatal kinetics and photosynthetic gas exchange along a continuum of iso- to anisohydric regulation of plant water status. Plant, Cell and Environment. 40:1618-1628

Marias, DE, FC Meinzer, DR Woodruff, KA McCulloh. 2017. Thermotolerance and heat stress responses of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine seedling populations from contrasting climates. Tree Physiology37: 301-315.

Plant Cell & Environment 40_6 coverDomec, JC, DD Smith, KA McCulloh. 2017. Atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment effects on plant hydraulics: Implications for plant water use efficiency and resistance to drought. Plant, Cell & Environment40:921-937.

Meinzer, FC, DR Woodruff, D Marias, D Smith, KA McCulloh, A Howard. 2016. Mapping “hydroscapes” along the iso- to anisohydric continuum of stomatal regulation of plant water status. Ecology Letters19:1343-1352

Johnson, DM, R Wortemann, KA McCulloh, L Jordan-Meille, E Ward, JM Warren, S Palmroth, and J-C Domec. 2016. A test of the hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis in angiosperm and conifer tree species. Tree Physiology36:983-993.

McCulloh, K, J Petitmermet, A Stefanski, K Rice, R Montgomery, R Roy, and P Reich. 2016. Is it getting hot in here? Hydraulic responses of six species to five years of warming. Global Change Biology22:4124-4133.

Chmura, DJ, M Guzicka, KA McCulloh, and R Zytkowiak. 2016. Limited variation found among Norway spruce half-sib families in physiological response to drought and resistance to embolism. Tree Physiology36:252-266.

Gleason, SM, Westoby, M, Jansen, S, Choat, B, Hacke, U, Pratt, RB, Bhaskar, R, Brodribb, TJ, Bucci, SJ, Cao, K-F, Cochard, H, Delzon, S, Domec, J-C, Fan, Z-X, Feild, TS, Jacobsen, AL, Johnson, DM, Lens, F, Maherali, H, Martínez-Vilalta, J, Mayr, S, McCulloh, KA, Mencuccini, M, Mitchell, P, Morris, H, Nardini, A, Pittermann, J, Plavcová, L, Schreiber, SG, Sperry, JS, Wright, IJ, Zanne, AE. Weak tradeoff between xylem safety and xylem-specific hydraulic efficiency across the world’s woody plant species. 2016. New Phytologist209:123-136.

Gaines, KP, JK Wubbels, FC Meinzer, KA McCulloh, DR Woodruff, W Chen, TS Adams, H Lin, and DM Eissenstat. 2016. Reliance on shallow soil water in a mixed-hardwood forest in central Pennsylvania. Tree Physiology36:444-458.

Kerr, K, FC Meinzer, KA McCulloh, DR Woodruff, and D Marias. 2015. Expression of functional traits during seedling establishment in two populations of Pinus ponderosa from contrasting climates. Tree Physiology35:535-548.

McCulloh, KA, DM Johnson, J Petitmermet, B McNellis, FC Meinzer, and B Lachenbruch. 2015. A comparison of the hydraulic architecture of co-occurring trees and shrubs. Tree Physiology35: 723-731.

McCulloh, KA, and FC Meinzer. 2015. Further evidence that some plants can lose and regain hydraulic function daily. Tree Physiology35: 691-693.

Falster, DS et al. 2015. BAAD: a biomass and allometry database for woody plants. Ecology96:1445.

Lachenbruch, B, and KA McCulloh. 2014. Traits, properties, and performance: how woody plants combine hydraulic and mechanical functions in a cell, tissue, or whole plant. New Phytologist. Tansley Review. 204: 747-764

PCE cover v37 i11Meinzer, F. C., Woodruff, D. R., Marias, D. E., McCulloh, K. A. and Sevanto, S. 2014. Dynamics of leaf water relations components in co-occurring iso- and anisohydric conifer species. Plant, Cell & Environmentdoi: 10.1111/pce.12327

PCE cover v37 i5McCulloh, KA, DM Johnson, FC Meinzer, and DR Woodruff. 2014. The dynamic pipeline: Hydraulic capacitance and xylem hydraulic safety in four tall conifer species. Plant, Cell & Environment37: 1171-1183. doi: 10.1111/pce.12225

Zimmer, K, A Treu, and KA McCulloh. 2014. Anatomical differences in the structural elements of fluid passage of Scots pine sapwood with contrasting treatability. Wood Science and Technology48: 435-447.

Smith, D, JS Sperry, BJ Enquist, V Savage, KA McCulloh and LP Bentley. 2014. Deviation from symmetrically self-similar branching in trees predicts altered hydraulics, mechanics, light interception and metabolic scaling. New Phytologist201: 217-229.

Meinzer, FC, J-C Domec, DM Johnson, KA McCulloh, and DR Woodruff. 2013. The dynamic pipeline: homeostatic mechanisms that maintain the integrity of xylem water transport from roots to leaves. Acta Horticulturae991: 1235-131.

Meinzer, FC, DR Woodruff, DM Eissenstat, HS Lin, TS Adams, KA McCulloh. 2013. Above- and belowground controls on water use by trees of different wood types in an eastern United States deciduous forest. Tree Physiology33: 345-356.

Johnson, DM, J-C Domec, DR Woodruff, KA McCulloh, FC Meinzer. 2013. Contrasting hydraulic strategies in two tropical lianas and their host trees. American Journal of Botany100(2):1-10.

Renninger, HJ, KA McCulloh, N Phillips. 2013. A comparison of the hydraulic efficiency of a palm species Iriartea deltoidea with other wood types. Tree Physiology33:152-160.

Barnard, D, B Lachenbruch, KA McCulloh, P Kitin, and FC Meinzer. 2013. Do ray cells provide a pathway for radial water movement in the stems of conifer trees? American Journal of Botany100: 322-331.

Price, CA, JS Weitz, V Savage, J Stegen, A Clarke, DA Coomes, PS Dodds, R Etienne, AJ Kerkhoff, KA McCulloh, KJ Niklas, H Olff, NG Swenson. 2012. Testing the metabolic theory of ecology. Ecology Letters.15:1465-1474

Johnson, DM, KM McCulloh, DR Woodruff, and FC Meinzer. 2012. Hydraulic safety margins and embolism reversal in stems and leaves: why are conifers and angiosperms so different? Invited review for Plant Science195: 48-53

Crivellaro, A, KA McCulloh, A Jones, and B Lachenbruch. 2012. Anatomy and mechanical and hydraulic needs of woody climbers contrasted with subshrubs on the island of Cyprus. IAWA Journal33:355-373

Sperry, JS, DD Smith, VM Savage, BJ Enquist, KA McCulloh, PB Reich, LP Bentley, E von Allmen. 2012. A species-level model for metabolic scaling in trees I. Exploring boundaries to scaling space within and across species. Functional Ecology26: 1054-1065

McCulloh, K, DM Johnson, FC Meinzer, SL Voelker, B Lachenbruch, and J-C Domec. 2012. Hydraulic architecture of two species differing in wood density: opposing strategies in co-occurring tropical pioneer species. Plant, Cell and Environment35:116-125. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02421.x

Johnson, DM, K McCulloh, FC Meinzer, and DR Woodruff. 2012. Evidence for xylem embolism as a primary factor in dehydration-induced declines in leaf hydraulic conductance. Plant, Cell and Environment35: 760-769. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02449.x

Johnson, DM, K McCulloh, FC Meinzer, DR Woodruff, and DM Eissenstat. 2011. Hydraulic patterns and safety margins, from stem to stomata, in three US tree species. Tree Physiology31: 659-668.

McCulloh, K, F Meinzer, J Sperry, B Lachenbruch, SL Voelker, DR Woodruff, and J-C Domec. 2011. Comparative hydraulic architecture of tropical tree species representing a range of successional stages and wood density. Oecologia167: 27-37. DOI 10.1007/s00442-011-1973-5

McCulloh, K, DM Johnson, FC Meinzer, and B Lachenbruch. 2011. An annual pattern of native embolism in upper branches of four tall conifer species. American Journal of Botany98(6): 1007-1015.

Barnard, D, Meinzer, FC, Lachenbruch, B, McCulloh, KA, Johnson, DM, and Woodruff, DR. 2011. Climate-related trends in sapwood biophysical properties in two conifers: avoidance of hydraulic dysfunction through coordinated adjustments in xylem efficiency, safety and capacitance. Plant, Cell and Environment. 34 (4): 643-654.

Lintz HE, B McCune, A Gray and K McCulloh. 2011. Quantifying ecological thresholds from response surfaces. Ecological Modelling. 222:427-436.

Meinzer, FC, KA McCulloh, B Lachenbruch, D Woodruff, and DM Johnson. 2010. The blind men and the elephant: The impact of context and scale in evaluating conflicts between plant hydraulic safety and efficiency. Oecologia164: 287-296.

McCulloh, K, J Sperry, B Lachenbruch, F Meinzer, P Reich, and S Voelker. 2010. Moving water well: comparing hydraulic efficiency in twigs and trunks of coniferous, ring-porous, and diffuse-porous saplings from temperate and tropical forests. New Phytologist186:439-450. (Tansley Medal Finalist).

Woodruff, D, FC Meinzer, and K McCulloh. 2010. Height-related trends in stomatal sensitivity to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit in a tall conifer. Journal of Experimental Botany61(1) 203-210.

McCulloh, K, JS Sperry, F Meinzer, B Lachenbruch, and C Atala.  2009. Murray’s law, the “Yarrum” optimum, and the hydraulic architecture of compound leaves. New Phytologist184: 234-244.

Meinzer, FC, DM Johnson, B Lachenbruch, KA McCulloh, and DR Woodruff. 2009. Xylem hydraulic safety margins in woody plants: coordination of stomatal control of xylem tension with hydraulic capacitance. Functional Ecology. 23: 922-930.

Johnson D, D Woodruff, K McCulloh, and F Meinzer. 2009. Leaf hydraulic conductance, measured in situ, declines and recovers daily: leaf hydraulics, water potential and stomatal conductance in four temperate and three tropical tree species. Tree Physiology29: 879-887

Johnson, D, F Meinzer, D Woodruff, and K McCulloh. 2009. Leaf xylem embolism, detected acoustically and by cryo-SEM, corresponds to decreases in leaf hydraulic conductance in four evergreen species. Plant, Cell and Environment32 (7): 828-836

Domec, J-C, B Lachenbruch, F Meinzer, D Woodruff, J Warren, and K McCulloh. 2008. Maximum height in a conifer is associated with conflicting requirements for xylem design. PNAS105:12069-12074

Sperry, J, F Meinzer, K McCulloh. 2008. Safety and efficiency conflicts in hydraulic architecture: scaling from tissues to trees. Plant, Cell and Environment (invited review). 31: 632-645

McCulloh, K. K Winter, F Meinzer, M Garcia, J Aranda, and B Lachenbruch. 2007. A comparison of daily water use estimates derived from constant-heat sap-flow probe values and gravimetric measurements in pot-grown saplings. Tree Physiology27:1355-1360.

Woodruff, D, K McCulloh, J Warren, F Meinzer, and B Lachenbruch. 2007. Impacts of tree height on leaf hydraulic architecture and stomatal control in Douglas-fir. Plant, Cell and Environment30(5): 559-569

McCulloh, K, and J Sperry.  2005. The evaluation of Murray’s law in Psilotum nudum (Psilotaceae), an analogue of ancestral vascular plants.  American Journal of Botany92(6): 985-989.

McCulloh, K, and J Sperry.  2005. Patterns in hydraulic architecture and their implications for transport efficiency. Tree Physiology25:257-267.

McCulloh, K, J Sperry, and F Adler. 2004. Murray’s law and the hydraulic versus mechanical functioning of wood.  Functional Ecology 18: 931-938.

McCulloh, K, J Sperry, and F Adler. 2003. Water transport in plants obeys Murray’s law. Nature. 421, 939-942.

Hacke, U, V Stiller, J Sperry, J Pittermann, and K McCulloh. 2001. Cavitation Fatigue. Embolism and Refilling Cycles Can Weaken the Cavitation Resistance of Xylem. Plant Physiology125, 779-786.

Hacke, U, J Sperry, W Pockman, S Davis, and K McCulloh. 2001. Trends in wood density and structure are linked to prevention of xylem implosion by negative pressure. Oecologia. 126, 457-461.

Loudon, C and K McCulloh. 1999. Application of the Hagen-Poiseulle equation to fluid feeding through short tubes. Annals of the Entomological Society of America92 (1), 153-158.


McCulloh, K. 2004. Do plants obey Murray’s law? Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. 99 pp.

BOOK CHAPTERS (peer reviewed, except *)

Woodruff, DR, KA McCulloh, and FC Meinzer. 2016. Forest canopy hydraulics. Invited book chapter for Canopy photosynthesis: from basics to applications. K Hikosaka, N Anton, and U Niinemets eds. Springer, Dordrecht.

Johnson, DM, KA McCulloh, and K Reinhardt. 2011. Physiological and structural changes during the earliest phases of tree growth. Invited book chapter for Size- and Age-Related Changes in Tree Structure and Function. FC Meinzer, T Dawson, and B Lachenbruch, eds. Springer.

McCulloh, K, and J Sperry.  2006. Murray’s law and the mechanical architecture of plants.  In: Ecology and biomechanics. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL, USA.

*McCulloh, K.  1997. Evolution and its threat to human health.  In: Western Civilization Program: Collected Readings (1997-1998 Edition).  Simon and Schuster, Needham Heights.


Gleason, SM, Westoby, M, Jansen, S, Choat, B, Brodribb, TJ, Cochard, H, Delzon, S, Hacke, UG, Jacobsen, AL, Johnson, DM, Lens, F, Maherali, H, Martínez-Vilalta, J, Mayr, S, McCulloh, KA, Morris, H, Nardini, A, Plavcová, L, Pratt, RB, Schreiber, SG, Zanne, AE. (2016) On research priorities to advance understanding of the safety-efficiency tradeoff in xylem. New Phytologist 209:123-136

Sack et al. 2016. Plant hydraulics as a central hub integrating plant and ecosystem function: meeting report for “Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulic” (Washington, DC, May 2015). Plant, Cell and Environment39: 2085-2094

Meinzer, FC and KA McCulloh. 2013. Xylem recovery from drought-induced embolism: Where is the hydraulic point of no return? Tree Physiology33: 331-334.

McCulloh, KA, and DR Woodruff. 2012. Linking stomatal sensitivity to whole-tree hydraulic architecture. Tree Physiology32:369-372.

Meinzer, FC, KA McCulloh, B Lachenbruch, D Woodruff, and DM Johnson. 2011. Response to commentary by G. Petit and T. Anfodillo. Oecologia165: 275.


McCulloh, K. 2009. Review of Teaching plant anatomy through creative laboratory exercises. 2008. R.L. Peterson, C.A. Peterson & L.H. Melville. NRC Press, Ottawa, Ontario. In: IAWA Journal. 30(2):188.